Active Immunity

The natural immune response to an antigen by infectious exposure or inoculation, resulting in theformation of specific antibodies and protection from subsequent infection by the same pathogen.


A damaging immune response by the body to a substance, especially a particular food, pollen, fur, or dust, to which it has become hypersensitive.


also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

Attenuated Vaccine

This is a vaccine created by reducing the virulence of a pathogen, but still keeping it viable (or “live”). Attenuation takes an infectious agent and alters it so that it becomes harmless or less virulent. These vaccines contrast to those produced by “killing” the virus (inactivated vaccine).


(of a disease) able to be transmitted from one sufferer to another; contagious or infectious.


A particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism.

Efficacy rate

A measure used to describe how successful a treatment is at preventing disease.


the state of having no protection from something.


Having or showing the symptoms of a fever.


 Less than normal sensitivity to a foreign agent, such as an allergen, in which the response is unusually delayed or lessened in degree.


The balanced state of having adequate biological defences to fight infectiondisease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.


a form of small leucocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system.


The administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual’s immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen. 

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